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Medical and Research Library News - June 2021

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Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics
Journal articles of note

June 2021       

Training opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

June 3, 2021; 1-2 p.m. Ag worker health 102: Supporting agricultural worker health. In this webinar, faculty will share information on the most relevant current agricultural worker policy issues. It will also explore effective service delivery models that include recent adaptations due to COVID-19. Finally, faculty will highlight training and technical assistance (T/TA) opportunities, resources, and promising practices to help support health center staff in the implementation of service delivery changes and adaptations when serving agricultural workers. This webinar is developed and presented by the Farmworker Health Network. https://ncfh-org.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_gRpg8k9gQeSRPh8bi17pAw

June 9, 2021; 1-2 p.m. Strategies for increasing routine adult vaccination rates. Routine vaccination is an essential preventive care service for adults as well as children. Unfortunately, many US adults do not receive all recommended vaccines and thus, remain unprotected against preventable diseases. This gap in coverage has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Join the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID) for a discussion on current adult vaccination recommendations and strategies for increasing coverage among adults in the US. https://nfid.z2systems.com/np/clients/nfid/eventRegistration.jsp?event=329&

June 10, 2021; 2-3 p.m. Infection prevention and control in schools. As more schools return to in-person learning, the work of balancing the best possible education while keeping students and staff safe has become even more challenging. The Infection Prevention and Control in Schools Task Force, led by Danielle Allen, James Bryant Conant University Professor and Director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University, will discuss a roadmap that will support education and public health leaders in building the organizational capacity and partnership needed for maintaining healthy schools in this pandemic and the next. Presented by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). https://naccho.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_snJ0qYe0TuS3umyYGwhHcA

June 17, 2021; 11 a.m.-12 p.m. Neonatal testing for rare diseases: The power of knowing. Join this discussion to learn from experts about the pros and cons of neonatal (and prenatal) testing for rare diseases and what challenges face both the medical community treating these disorders and the patients living with them. Presented by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). https://view6.workcast.net/register?cpak=1001330958038291&referrer=ScienceWebsite

June 22, 2021; 11 a.m.-12 p.m. Maternal health webinar series: Substance use disorder and pregnancy. The Health Resources and Services Administration’s (HRSA), Office of Regional Operations (ORO) 
in Regions 5, 6, and 7 invite you to a webinar on substance use disorder and pregnancy. This webinar is part of ORO Regions 5, 6, and 7’s Maternal Health Webinar Series. The series’ goal is to highlight innovations and promising practices as well as resources to promote 
and further maternal health and well-being across the lifespan. https://hrsa-gov.zoomgov.com/webinar/register/WN_Ps-AGT5oQSOCUXOBzSD0Eg

Websites and reports on trending topics

The critical public health value of vaccines: Tackling issues of access and hesitancy - This publication summarizes the presentations and discussion of an August 2020 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine workshop, which focused on vaccine access and vaccine confidence, and gave particular consideration to health systems, research opportunities, communication strategies, and policies that could be considered to address access, perception, attitudes, and behaviors toward vaccination. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/26134/the-critical-public-health-value-of-vaccines-tackling-issues-of

FastStats A?Z – This site provides quick access to statistics on topics of public health importance and is organized alphabetically. Links are provided to publications that include the statistics presented, to sources of more data, and to related web pages. From the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS). https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/default.htm

Health Promotion Practice showcases the intersection of arts and public health - This special open access supplement of the journal Health Promotion Practice (HPP) features 18 full-length articles. This collection of papers advances the current knowledge about skills needed for, and examples of work using the arts to advance individual and population health. https://journals.sagepub.com/toc/hppa/22/1_suppl
Safe System Consortium report - This report from a consortium of experts convened by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Institute of Transportation Engineers, discusses a new approach to road safety that relies on design and engineering principles. The “Safe System” approach could lead to dramatic reductions in vehicle-related deaths and injuries if implemented in the U.S. https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/johns-hopkins-center-for-injury-research-and-policy/our-impact/documents/recommendations-of-the-safe-system-consortium.pdf

Journal articles of note

Austin EW, Austin BW, Willoughby JF, Amram O, Domgaard S. How media literacy and science media literacy predicted the adoption of protective behaviors amidst the COVID-19 pandemic [published online ahead of print, 2021 Apr 30]. J Health Commun. 2021;1-14. doi:10.1080/10810730.2021.1899345
Individuals must navigate complex media environments filled with frequently changing and varyingly credible information to acquire and apply health information during times of uncertainty and danger. A process model tested in two U.S. national surveys in spring (N = 1220) and summer (N = 1264) of 2020 tested how three media literacy constructs (about sources, content, and science information) predicted the adoption of behaviors protective for COVID-19. Results showed that the three media literacy constructs were mediated by knowledge of COVID-19 (wave 1 TE = 0.190; wave 2 TE = 0.190) and expectancies (wave 1 TE = 0.496; wave 2 TE = 0.613). The model was confirmed as largely consistent across the two waves of data collection with independent samples. Results show the importance of expectancies for mediating the effects of media literacy, efficacy, and knowledge on behavior. The study suggests that media literacy and science media literacy skills aid health behavior adoption by contributing to knowledge gain and expectancies.

Bentzley BS, Han SS, Neuner S, Humphreys K, Kampman KM, Halpern CH. Comparison of treatments for cocaine use disorder among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(5). Published 2021 May 3. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.8049
Importance: In the US and the United Kingdom, cocaine use is the second leading cause of illicit drug overdose death. Psychosocial treatments for cocaine use disorder are limited, and no pharmacotherapy is approved for use in the US or Europe.
Objective: To compare treatments for active cocaine use among adults.
Data sources: PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for clinical trials published between December 31, 1995, and December 31, 2017.
Study selection: This meta-analysis was registered on Covidence.org (study 8731) on December 31, 2015. Clinical trials were included if they (1) had the term cocaine in the article title; (2) were published between December 31, 1995, and December 31, 2017; (3) were written in English; (4) enrolled outpatients 18 years or older with active cocaine use at baseline; and (5) reported treatment group size, treatment duration, retention rates, and urinalysis results for the presence of cocaine metabolites. A study was excluded if (1) more than 25% of participants were not active cocaine users or more than 80% of participants had negative test results for the presence of cocaine metabolites at baseline and (2) it reported only pooled urinalysis results indicating the presence of multiple substances and did not report the specific proportion of positive test results for cocaine metabolites. Multiple reviewers reached criteria consensus. Of 831 records screened, 157 studies (18.9%) met selection criteria and were included in the analysis.
Data extraction and synthesis: This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Search results were imported from PubMed XML into Covidence.org then Microsoft Excel. Data extraction was completed in 2 iterations to ensure fidelity. Analyses included a multilevel random-effects model, a multilevel mixed-effects meta-regression model, and sensitivity analyses. Treatments were clustered into 11 categories (psychotherapy, contingency management programs, placebo, opioids, psychostimulants, anticonvulsants, dopamine agonists, antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous medications, and other therapies). Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation by chained equations. The significance threshold for all analyses was P = .05. Data were analyzed using the metafor and mice packages in R software, version 3.3.2 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing). Data were analyzed from January 1, 2018, to February 28, 2021.
Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was the intention-to-treat logarithm of the odds ratio (OR) of having a negative urinalysis result for the presence of cocaine metabolites at the end of each treatment period compared with baseline. The hypothesis, which was formulated after data collection, was that no treatment category would have a significant association with objective reductions in cocaine use.
Results: A total of 157 studies comprising 402 treatment groups and 15,842 participants were included. Excluding other therapies, the largest treatment groups across all studies were psychotherapy (mean [SD] number of participants, 40.04 [36.88]) and contingency management programs (mean [SD] number of participants, 37.51 [25.51]). Only contingency management programs were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of having a negative test result for the presence of cocaine (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.62-2.80), and this association remained significant in all sensitivity analyses.
Conclusions and relevance: In this meta-analysis, contingency management programs were associated with reductions in cocaine use among adults. Research efforts and policies that align with this treatment modality may benefit those who actively use cocaine and attenuate societal burdens.

Buendia JR, Sears S, Griffin E, Mgbere OO. Prevalence and risk factors of type II diabetes mellitus among people living with HIV in Texas [published online ahead of print, 2021 May 11]. AIDS Care. 2021;1-8. doi:10.1080/09540121.2021.1925212
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among people living with HIV (PLWH). Cross-sectional data of 989 PLWH in Texas obtained from the 2015-2017 Texas and Houston Medical Monitoring Project were examined. T2DM was identified by formal medical chart diagnosis, insulin/oral hypoglycemic prescriptions, or most recent fasting blood glucose ?126 mg/dL. T2DM adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression. Participants were mostly male (72%), ?40 years (68%), overweight (31%) or obese (28%) and virally suppressed (62%). T2DM prevalence was 15% with variations by age, body mass index, education and health insurance (p < 0.05 for all). Compared to PLWH ?60 years, 18-39-year-olds had significantly lower likelihood of T2DM (p < 0.001). Overweight and obese PLWH were 2.11 (95% CI: 1.23-3.63) and 3.89 times (95% CI: 2.30-6.56) more likely to have T2DM compared to normal weight PLWH. Over 1 in 6 PLWH in Texas had T2DM, with age and BMI as significant predictors. Since DM is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and PLWH are living longer, increased education and lifestyle modification interventions are warranted to prevent T2DM development among PLWH.

Haas EJ, Angulo FJ, McLaughlin JM, et al. Impact and effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, and deaths following a nationwide vaccination campaign in Israel: an observational study using national surveillance data. Lancet. 2021;397(10287):1819-1829. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00947-8
Background: Following the emergency use authorisation of the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 (international non-proprietary name tozinameran) in Israel, the Ministry of Health (MoH) launched a campaign to immunise the 6.5 million residents of Israel aged 16 years and older. We estimated the real-world effectiveness of two doses of BNT162b2 against a range of SARS-CoV-2 outcomes and to evaluate the nationwide public-health impact following the widespread introduction of the vaccine.
Methods: We used national surveillance data from the first 4 months of the nationwide vaccination campaign to ascertain incident cases of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and outcomes, as well as vaccine uptake in residents of Israel aged 16 years and older. Vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 outcomes (asymptomatic infection, symptomatic infection, and COVID-19-related hospitalisation, severe or critical hospitalisation, and death) was calculated on the basis of incidence rates in fully vaccinated individuals (defined as those for whom 7 days had passed since receiving the second dose of vaccine) compared with rates in unvaccinated individuals (who had not received any doses of the vaccine), with use of a negative binomial regression model adjusted for age group (16-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ?85 years), sex, and calendar week. The proportion of spike gene target failures on PCR test among a nationwide convenience-sample of SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens was used to estimate the prevelance of the B.1.1.7 variant.
Findings: During the analysis period (Jan 24 to April 3, 2021), there were 232,268 SARS-CoV-2 infections, 7694 COVID-19 hospitalisations, 4481 severe or critical COVID-19 hospitalisations, and 1113 COVID-19 deaths in people aged 16 years or older. By April 3, 2021, 4,714,932 (72.1%) of 6,538,911 people aged 16 years and older were fully vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2. Adjusted estimates of vaccine effectiveness at 7 days or longer after the second dose were 95.3% (95% CI 94.9-95.7; incidence rate 91.5 per 100,000 person-days in unvaccinated vs 3.1 per 100,000 person-days in fully vaccinated individuals) against SARS-CoV-2 infection, 91.5% (90.7-92.2; 40.9 vs 1.8 per 100,000 person-days) against asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, 97.0% (96.7-97.2; 32.5 vs 0.8 per 100,000 person-days) against symptomatic COVID-19, 97.2% (96.8-97.5; 4.6 vs 0.3 per 100,000 person-days) against COVID-19-related hospitalisation, 97.5% (97.1-97.8; 2.7 vs 0.2 per 100,000 person-days) against severe or critical COVID-19-related hospitalisation, and 96·7% (96.0-97.3; 0.6 vs 0.1 per 100,000 person-days) against COVID-19-related death. In all age groups, 
as vaccine coverage increased, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 outcomes declined. 8006 of 8472 samples tested showed a spike gene target failure, giving an estimated prevalence of the B.1.1.7 variant of 94.5% among SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Interpretation: Two doses of BNT162b2 are highly effective across all age groups (?16 years, including older adults aged ?85 years) in preventing symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related hospitalisations, severe disease, and death, including those caused by the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant. There were marked and sustained declines in SARS-CoV-2 incidence corresponding to increasing vaccine coverage. These findings suggest that COVID-19 vaccination can help to control the pandemic.

Nuzhath T, Ajayi KV, Fan Q, et al. Childhood immunization during the COVID-19 pandemic in Texas [published online ahead of print, 2021 Apr 27]. Vaccine. 2021. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.04.050
In 2020, the state of Texas implemented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) social distancing guidelines to prevent surges at Texas hospital emergency rooms and in intensive care units. As noted in other states, an unintended consequence of these activities was significant declines in childhood immunizations. After analyzing state-wide immunization register data for Texas, we observed a 47% relative decline in immunization rates between 2019 and 2020 among 5-month-olds and a 58% decline among 
16-month-olds. We observed a small decline (5%) among 24-month-olds, and no decline in vaccines received at birth (Hepatitis B). Declines were larger in rural counties compared to urban. These declines are superimposed on increases in state vaccine exemptions over the last five years due to an aggressive anti-vaccine movement in Texas. There are concerns that continued declines in childhood immunization coverage due to COVID-19 could lead to co-endemics of measles and other vaccine preventable diseases.

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Last updated August 3, 2021