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DSHS Authors: 2018 Research Articles by DSHS Staff

The following list includes peer-reviewed research articles that have been written by staff of the Texas Department of State Health Services. For more information about these articles or for a full-text copy, please contact the Medical and Research Library by email at library@dshs.texas.gov by calling 512-776-7559.

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2018 Articles (in date order with most recent first)

Reynolds RJ, Day SM, Shafer A, Becker E. Mortality rates and excess death rates for the seriously mentally ill. J Insur Med. 2018;47(4):212-219. doi: 10.17849/insm-47-04-1-8.1. 
OBJECTIVES: To compute mortality rates and excess death rates for patients with serious mental illness, specific to categories of gender, age and race/ethnicity.
BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illness are known to be at greatly increased risk of mortality across the lifespan. However, the measures of mortality reported for this high-risk population are typically only summary measures, which do not provide either the mortality rates or excess death rates needed to construct life tables for individuals with serious mental illness.
METHODS: Mortality rates were computed by dividing the number of deaths by the amount of life-years lived in strata specific to gender, age and race/ethnicity. Age-specific excess death rates were determined as the difference between the study population rate and the corresponding general population rate in each stratum. To compute excess death rates beyond observed ages in the cohort, a method with documented reliability and validity for chronic medical conditions was used.
RESULTS: For the cohort with mental illness, mortality rates for Black and White females were mostly equal, and consistently greater than those for Hispanic females; excess death rates for females displayed a similar pattern. Among males, mortality rates were highest for Whites, with Hispanics and Blacks close in magnitude at all ages. Excess death rates for males showed more divergence between the categories of race/ethnicity across the age range.
CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates specific to categories of gender, age and race/ethnicity show sufficient differences as to make them the preferred way to construct life tables. This is especially true in contrast to broader summary measures such as risk ratios, standardized incidence rates, or life expectancy.

Given LS, Coughlin R, Hager P, et al. Comprehensive cancer control in the US: 20 years of progress. Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Dec;29(12):1151-1161. doi: 10.1007/s10552-018-1098-9.

Reilly R, Spalding S, Walsh B, et al. Chronic environmental and occupational lead exposure and kidney function among African Americans: Dallas Lead Project II. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Dec; 15(12). pii: E2875. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15122875.
Background: We examined the effects of lead on kidney function in occupationally and environmentally exposed adults from a Dallas lead smelter community that was the site of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund clean-up. All subjects were African Americans-a racial group that bears a disproportionate burden of kidney disease. Methods: A two-phase health screening was conducted. Phase II included a physical examination and laboratory tests. Study subjects were African Americans residents, aged ≥19 years to ≤89 years. Of 778 subjects, 726 were environmentally exposed and 52 were both occupationally and environmentally exposed. The effects of lead exposure on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were examined in three groups: male and female smelter-community residents, as well as males with both occupational and environmental exposure. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the dependence of eGFR on log (blood lead level), duration of residence in the community, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Results: There was a statistically significant negative effect on kidney function for all three groups. Comparison of female and male residents showed a slightly larger negative effect of blood lead level on eGFR in females versus males, with the largest effect seen in male smelter-working residents. For each unit increase (log10 10µg/dL = 1) in blood lead level, age-adjusted eGFR was reduced 21.2 mL/min/1.73 m² in male residents, 25.3 mL/min/1.73 m² in female residents and 59.2 mL/min/1.73 m² in male smelter-working residents. Conclusions: Chronic lead exposure is associated with worsening kidney function in both African American male and female residents, as well as male workers in Dallas smelter communities. This effect is slightly, but not statistically significantly, worse in female residents than male residents, and significantly worse in males that both worked and resided in the smelter community.

Cha EM, Hoelscher DM, Saxton D, et al. Effect of media use on adolescent body weight. Prev Chronic Dis. 2018 Nov;15:E141. doi: 10.5888/pcd15.180206.
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents spend a substantial amount of time consuming media, including watching television, playing video games, and using electronic devices to access the internet. We examined the relationship between prolonged media use on screen devices and its potential association with obesity through several mechanisms.
METHODS: We used data from 659,288 eighth and eleventh grade students who participated in the 2015-2016 School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey in Texas to examine the associations between hours of media use per day and 3 behaviors related to obesity: timing of last food intake, unhealthy eating behavior, and sleep hours. Also, mediation analyses were conducted to examine the pathways between hours of media use and body mass index (BMI).
RESULTS: Compared with adolescents who used media 2 hours or less per day, those who used media 6 hours or more had higher odds of nighttime eating (odds ratio [OR], 3.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-5.66) and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05-2.36) and a higher coefficient for Unhealthy Eating Index score (3.87; 95% CI, 1.3-6.37). Mediation analysis demonstrated that for males sleep hours and timing of last food intake mediated the pathway between hours of media use and BMI. For females, unhealthy eating behavior mediated this pathway.
CONCLUSION: Adolescents who used electronic media 6 or more hours at night had higher odds of unhealthy eating behavior and inadequate sleep hours than those with 2 hours' use or less. Attention to behaviors associated with adolescents' prolonged media use is needed to reduce risk of obesity.

Stallings EB, Isenburg JL, Canfield MA, et al. Population-based birth defects data in the United States, 2011-2015: A focus on eye and ear defects. Birth Defects Res. 2018 Nov;110(19):1478-1486. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1413. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:In this data brief, we examine major eye and ear anomalies (anophthalmia/microphthalmia, anotia/microtia, and congenital cataract) for a recent 5-year birth cohort using data from 30 population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States.
METHODS: As a special call for data for the 2018 NBDPN Annual Report, state programs reported expanded data on eye/ear anomalies for birth years 2011-2015. We calculated the combined overall prevalence (per 10,000 live births) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), for the three anomalies as well as by maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, infant sex, laterality, presence/absence of other major birth defects, and case ascertainment methodology utilized by the program (active vs. passive).
RESULTS: The overall prevalence estimate (per 10,000 live births) was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.5) for anophthalmia/microphthalmia, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.6) for congenital cataract, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.7-1.8) for anotia/microtia. Congenital cataract prevalence varied little by maternal race/ethnicity, infant sex, or case ascertainment methodology; prevalence differences were more apparent across strata for anophthalmia/microphthalmia and anotia/microtia. Prevalence among active vs. passive ascertainment programs was 50% higher for anophthalmia/microphthalmia (1.9 vs. 1.2) and two-fold higher for anotia/microtia (2.6 vs. 1.2). Anophthalmia/microphthalmia was more likely than other conditions to co-occur with other birth defects. All conditions were more frequent among older mothers (40+ years).
CONCLUSIONS: This data brief provides recent prevalence estimates for anophthalmia/microphthalmia, congenital cataract, and anotia/microtia that address a data gap by examining pooled data from 30 population-based surveillance systems, covering a five-year birth cohort of about 12.4 million births.

Marengo LK, Flood TJ, Canfield MA, et al. Study of selected birth defects among American Indian/Alaska Native population: A multi-state population-based retrospective study, 1999-2007. Birth Defects Res. 2018 Nov;110(19):1412-1418. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1397. 
BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence of selected birth defects has been reported among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) newborns. We examine whether known risk factors for birth defects explain the higher prevalence observed for selected birth defects among this population.
METHODS: Data from 12 population-based birth defects surveillance systems, covering a birth population of 11 million from 1999 to 2007, were used to examine prevalence of birth defects that have previously been reported to have elevated prevalence among AI/ANs. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated for non-Hispanic AI/ANs and any AI/ANs (regardless of Hispanic ethnicity), adjusting for maternal age, education, diabetes, and smoking, as well as type of case-finding ascertainment surveillance system.
RESULTS: After adjustment, the birth prevalence of two of seven birth defects remained significantly elevated among AI/ANs compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs): anotia/microtia was almost threefold higher, and cleft lip +/- cleft palate was almost 70% higher compared to NHWs. Excluding AI/AN subjects who were also Hispanic had only a negligible impact on adjusted PRs.
CONCLUSIONS: Additional covariates accounted for some of the elevated birth defect prevalences among AI/ANs compared to NHWs. Exclusion of Hispanic ethnicity from the AI/AN category had little impact on birth defects prevalences in AI/ANs. NHWs serve as a viable comparison group for analysis. Birth defects among AI/ANs require additional scrutiny to identify modifiable risk and protective factors.

Suhl J, Leonard S, Langlois PH, et al. Maternal arsenic exposure and nonsyndromic orofacial clefts. Birth Defects Res. 2018 Nov;110(19):1455-1467. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1386. 
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment in both inorganic and organic forms. Evidence from animal studies suggests that maternal inorganic arsenic may lead to the development of orofacial clefts (OFC)s in offspring. This evidence, together with the limited epidemiologic data available, supports the need for a comprehensive examination of major sources of arsenic exposure and OFCs in humans.
METHODS: Using interview data collected in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, public and well water arsenic sampling data, and dietary arsenic estimates, we compared expert-rater assessed occupational arsenic exposure, individual-level exposure to arsenic through drinking water, and dietary arsenic exposure between mothers of OFC cases (N = 435) and unaffected controls (N = 1267). Associations for each source of exposure were estimated for cleft lip ± palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP) using unconditional logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: Associations for maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and CL/P were near or below unity, whereas those for dietary arsenic exposure tended to be positive. For CP, positive associations were observed for maternal occupational arsenic and inorganic arsenic exposures, with confidence intervals that excluded the null value, whereas those for drinking water or dietary arsenic exposures tended to be near or below unity.
CONCLUSIONS: Positive associations were observed for maternal occupational arsenic exposure and CP and for maternal dietary arsenic exposure and CL/P; the remainder of associations estimated tended to be near or below unity. Given the exploratory nature of our study, the results should be interpreted cautiously, and continued research using improved exposure assessment methodologies is recommended.

Anderka M, Mai CT, Langlois PH, et al. Status of population-based birth defects surveillance programs before and after the Zika public health response in the United States. Birth Defects Res. 2018 Nov;110(19):1388-1394. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1391
BACKGROUND: The 2016 Zika public health response in the United States highlighted the need for birth defect surveillance (BDS) programs to collect population-based data on birth defects potentially related to Zika as rapidly as possible through enhanced case ascertainment and reporting. The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) assessed BDS program activities in the United States before and after the Zika response.
METHODS: The NBDPN surveyed 54 BDS programs regarding activities before and after the Zika response, lessons learned, and programmatic needs. Follow-up emails were sent and phone calls were held for programs with incomplete or no response to the online survey. Survey data were cleaned and tallied, and responses to open-ended questions were placed into best-fit categories.
RESULTS: A 100% response rate was achieved. Of the 54 programs surveyed, 42 reported participation in the Zika public health response that included BDS activities. Programs faced challenges in expanding their surveillance effort given the response requirements but reported mitigating factors such as establishing and enhancing partnerships and program experience with surveillance and clinical activities. Beyond funding, reported program needs included training, surveillance tools/resources, and availability of clinical experts.
CONCLUSIONS: Existing BDS programs with experience implementing active case-finding and case verification were able to adapt their surveillance efforts rapidly to collect and report data necessary for the Zika response. Program sustainability for BDS remains challenging; thus, continued support, training, and resource development are important to ensure that the infrastructure built during the Zika response is available for the next public health response.

Soim A, Sheridan SC, Langlois PH, et al.  A population-based case-control study of the association between weather-related extreme heat events and orofacial clefts. Birth Defects Res. 2018 Nov;110(19):1468-1477. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1385. 
BACKGROUND: Limited epidemiologic research exists on the association between weather-related extreme heat events (EHEs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We estimated the associations between maternal exposure to EHEs in the summer season and OFCs in offspring and investigated the potential modifying effect of body mass index on these associations.
METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study among mothers who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for whom at least 1 day of their first two post-conception months occurred during summer. Cases were live-born infants, stillbirths, and induced terminations with OFCs; controls were live-born infants without major birth defects. We defined EHEs using the 95th and the 90th percentiles of the daily maximum universal apparent temperature distribution. We used unconditional logistic regression with Firth's penalized likelihood method to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, controlling for maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric variables.
RESULTS: We observed no association between maternal exposure to EHEs and OFCs overall, although prolonged duration of EHEs may increase the risk of OFCs in some study sites located in the Southeast climate region. Analyses by subtypes of OFCs revealed no associations with EHEs. Modifying effect by BMI was not observed.
CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significantly increased risk of OFCs associated with maternal exposure to EHEs during the relevant window of embryogenesis. Future studies should account for maternal indoor and outdoor activities and for characteristics such as hydration and use of air conditioning that could modify the effect of EHEs on pregnant women.

Van Horne BS, Caughy MO, Canfield M, et al. First-time maltreatment in children ages 2-10 with and without specific birth defects: A population-based study. Child Abuse Negl. 2018 Oct;84:53-63. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.07.003. 
Children with disabilities are at an increased risk for maltreatment. However, little is known about the risk of maltreatment in children with specific types of birth defects. This study was conducted to determine whether the risk and predictors of maltreatment in children 2 to 10 years of age differ between those without and with specific birth defects: Down syndrome, cleft lip with/without cleft palate, and spina bifida. State administrative and United States Census data were linked to identify study groups, variables of interest, and outcome measures. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to identify study groups and variables associated with an increased risk for maltreatment. The prevalence of substantiated maltreatment was consistently highest among children with cleft lip with/without cleft palate. After adjusting for birth-level factors, children with Down syndrome and cleft lip with/without cleft palate were 34% and 26% more likely to have been maltreated than those without birth defects, respectively. In all three birth defect groups, the risk of medical neglect was higher (relative risks ranged from 3 to 11) than in the unaffected group. The factors associated with increased risk for maltreatment were similar across all groups. Of note, parity, maternal education, and maternal Medicaid use at birth were all associated with greater than 2-fold increased risk for maltreatment. Our findings suggest that the families of children with birth defects may need support services throughout early childhood to help families cope with the needs of their children and reduce the risk of maltreatment.

Siegel RM, Haemer M, Pont SJ, et al. Community healthcare and technology to enhance communication in pediatric obesity care. Child Obes. 2018 Oct;14(7):453-460. doi: 10.1089/chi.2017.0339. 
Childhood obesity continues to be a critical healthcare issue and a paradigm of a pervasive chronic disease affecting even our youngest children. When considered within the context of the socioecological model, the factors that influence weight status, including the social determinants of health, limit the impact of multidisciplinary care that occurs solely within the medical setting. Coordinated care that incorporates communication between the healthcare and community sectors is necessary to more effectively prevent and treat obesity. In this article, the Expert Exchange authors, with input from providers convened at an international pediatric meeting, provide recommendations to address this critical issue. These recommendations draw upon examples from the management of other chronic conditions that might be applied to the treatment of obesity, such as the use of care plans and health assessment forms to allow weight management specialists and community personnel (e.g., school counselors) to communicate about treatment recommendations and responses. To facilitate communication across the healthcare and community sectors, practical considerations regarding the development and/or evaluation of communication tools are presented. In addition, the use of technology to enhance healthcare-community communication is explored as a means to decrease the barriers to collaboration and to create a web of connection between the community and healthcare providers that promote wellness and a healthy weight status.

Armstrong BA, Kneubehl A, Krishnavajhala A, et al. Seroprevalence for the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae among small and medium sized mammals of Texas. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Oct;12(10):e0006877. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006877. 
BACKGROUND: In low elevation arid regions throughout the southern United States, Borrelia turicatae is the principal agent of tick-borne relapsing fever. However, endemic foci and the vertebrate hosts involved in the ecology of B. turicatae remain undefined. Experimental infection studies suggest that small and medium sized mammals likely maintain B. turicatae in nature, while the tick vector is a long-lived reservoir.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum samples from wild caught rodents, raccoons, and wild and domestic canids from 23 counties in Texas were screened for prior exposure to B. turicatae. Serological assays were performed using B. turicatae protein lysates and recombinant Borrelia immunogenic protein A (rBipA), a diagnostic protein that is unique to RF spirochetes and may be a species-specific antigen.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Serological responses to B. turicatae were detected from 24 coyotes, one gray fox, two raccoons, and one rodent from six counties in Texas. These studies indicate that wild canids and raccoons were exposed to B. turicatae and are likely involved in the pathogen's ecology. Additionally, more work should focus on evaluating rodent exposure to B. turicatae and the role of these small mammals in the pathogen's maintenance in nature.

Shumate C, Hoyt A, Liu C, Kleinert A, Canfield M. Understanding how the concentration of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage affects spina bifida risk among births to non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women, Texas, 1999-2014. Birth Defects Res. 2018 Sep 10. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1374. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: This is the first study to utilize the index of concentration at the extremes (ICE) to examine risk factors for spina bifida in Texas. The ICE is a useful measure for providing the degree to which residents in a certain area are concentrated into groups at the extremes of disadvantage and privilege. We introduce two novel ICE measures (language and nativity), and three existing ICE measures (race/ethnicity, income, and education), which we applied specifically to Texas residents.
METHODS: We used multivariable mixed-model Poisson regression analyses to estimate spina bifida birth prevalence and prevalence ratios among singleton live births in Texas, 1999-2014, for each of our ICE measures. Maternal census tract at delivery was included in the models as a random effect. Analyses were stratified by maternal race/ethnicity (Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites). Live births served as denominators for each category.
RESULTS: Among non-Hispanic white women, those in the most disadvantaged versus the advantaged census tract quintile had adjusted relative risk between 1.6 and 8.5 for having a baby affected by spina bifida. However, Hispanic women in the most disadvantaged versus advantaged census tract quintile for four ICE measures had a 33% to 87% lower risk of having an affected pregnancy.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest spina bifida risk is associated with neighborhood disadvantage or advantage, and that relationship seems to vary by race-ethnicity. The varied associations between ICE measures and spina bifida by race/ethnicity highlights the importance of using targeted interventions in the prevention of spina bifida.

Taylor BS, Fornos L, Tarbutton J, et al. Improving HIV care engagement in the south from the patient and provider perspective: the role of stigma, social support, and shared decision-making. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2018 Sep;32(9):368-378. doi: 10.1089/apc.2018.0039.
Initial linkage to medical care is a critical step in the HIV care continuum leading to improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity and mortality, and decreased HIV transmission risk. We explored differences in perspectives on engagement in HIV care between people living with HIV who attended (Arrived) their initial medical provider visit (IMV) and those who did not (Missed), and between patients and providers. The study was conducted in two large majority/minority HIV treatment centers in the United States (US) south, a geographical region disproportionately impacted by HIV. The Theory of Planned Behavior informed semistructured interviews eliciting facilitators and barriers to engagement in care from 53 participants: 40 patients in a structured sample of 20 Missed and 20 Arrived, and 13 care providers. Using Grounded Theory to frame analysis, we found similar perspectives for all groups, including beliefs in the following: patients' control over care engagement, a lack of knowledge regarding HIV within the community, and the impact of structural barriers to HIV care such as paperwork, transportation, housing, and substance use treatment. Differences were noted by care engagement status. Missed described HIV-related discrimination, depression, and lack of social support. Arrived worried what others think about their HIV status. Providers focused on structural barriers and process, while patients focused on relational aspects of HIV care and personal connection with clinics. Participants proposed peer navigation and increased contact from clinics as interventions to reduce missed IMV. Context-appropriate interventions informed by these perspectives are needed to address the expanding southern HIV epidemic.

Suhl J, Romitti PA, Rocheleau C, et al. Parental occupational pesticide exposure and nonsyndromic orofacial clefts. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Sep;15(9):641-653. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2018.1484127.
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects. Reported risks for orofacial clefts associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure are mixed. To examine the role of parental pesticide exposure in orofacial cleft development in offspring, this study compared population-based case-control data for parental occupational exposures to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, alone or in combinations, during maternal (1 month before through 3 months after conception) and paternal (3 months before through 3 months after conception) critical exposure periods between orofacial cleft cases and unaffected controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, adjusted for relevant covariables, and 95% confidence intervals for any (yes, no) and cumulative (none, low [<median exposure level in controls], high [≥median exposure level in controls]) occupational pesticide exposures and cleft lip ± cleft palate and cleft palate. Associations for cleft lip ± cleft palate tended to be near unity for maternal or paternal occupational pesticide exposures, except for low paternal exposure to any pesticide, which produced a statistically significant inverse association with this subtype. Associations for cleft palate tended to be near unity for maternal exposures and mostly positive, but non-significant, for paternal exposures; a significant positive association was observed between paternal low exposure to insecticide + herbicide + fungicide and cleft palate. Combined parental exposure produced non-significant associations near or below unity for all orofacial cleft cases combined and cleft lip ± cleft palate and positive, but non-significant, associations for cleft palate. This study observed associations mostly near unity between maternal occupational pesticide exposure and orofacial clefts. Associations for paternal occupational pesticide exposures were mostly near or below unity for cleft lip ± cleft palate, and mostly positive for cleft palate. However, due to the limitations of this study, these subtype-specific results should be interpreted cautiously. Future research examining parental occupational pesticide exposure and orofacial clefts should attempt to improve exposure assessment and increase sample size to better facilitate risk estimation.

Chambers TM, Agopian AJ, Lewis RA, et al. Epidemiology of anophthalmia and microphthalmia: prevalence and patterns in Texas, 1999-2009. Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Sep;176(9):1810-1818. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.40352. 
Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are a set of rare, yet severe, birth defects considered to be part of a spectrum of developmental ocular malformations ranging from smaller than average to completely absent eyes. Despite their clinical significance, little is known about the etiologies of these conditions. The goal of this study was to expand our understanding of the epidemiology of anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Data for this population-based assessment were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and Center for Health Statistics for the period 1999-2009. Descriptive analyses and estimates of birth prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR) were determined for this defect. There were 1,262 definite anophthalmia and microphthalmia patients identified in the TBDR, with an overall combined prevalence of 3.0 per 10,000 live births. More than half (55.7%) of the patients had at least one chromosome abnormality or syndrome. In addition, 92.4% of nonsyndromic patients (i.e., have no recorded chromosome abnormalities or syndromes) had at least one additional birth defect. After adjustment for multiple factors, the prevalence of nonsyndromic anophthalmia and microphthalmia was higher among mothers who had ≥2 previous fetal deaths (PR = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.97) and among mothers with any reported diabetes (PR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.49-2.90). Our results confirm that children with anophthalmia and microphthalmia frequently have genetic syndromes or are born with other major birth defects. Our findings add to the limited body of literature on anophthalmia and microphthalmia as well as help define subgroups of women who are more likely to have children with this malformation.

Weyer P, Rhoads A, Suhl J, et al. Drinking water disinfection byproducts and risk of orofacial clefts in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Birth Defects Res. 2018 Jul 17;110(12):1027-1042. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1348.
BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBP)s may contribute to orofacial cleft (OFC) development, but studies are sparse and beset with limitations.
METHODS: Population-based, maternal interview reports of drinking water filtration and consumption for 680 OFC cases (535 isolated) and 1826 controls were linked with DBP concentration data using maternal residential addresses and public water system monitoring data. Maternal individual-level exposures to trihalomethanes (THM)s and haloacetic acids (HAA)s (µg/L of water consumed) were estimated from reported consumption at home, work, and school. Compared to no exposure, associations with multisource maternal exposure <1/2 or ≥1/2 the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL)s for total THMs (TTHM)s and HAAs (HAA5) or Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLG)s for individual THMs and HAAs (if non-zero) were estimated for all OFCs and isolated OFCs, cleft palate (CP), and cleft lip ± cleft palate (CL/P) using logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: Compared to controls, associations were near or below unity for maternal TTHM, HAA5, and individual THM exposures with all OFCs and isolated OFCs, CP, and CL/P. Associations also were near or below unity for individual HAAs with statistically significant, inverse associations observed with each OFC outcome group except CL/P.
CONCLUSIONS: This study examined associations for maternal reports of drinking water filtration and consumption and maternal DBP exposure from drinking water with OFCs in offspring. Associations observed were near or below unity and mostly nonsignificant. Continued, improved research using maternal individual-level exposure data will be useful in better characterizing these associations.

Ramsey J, Mayes B. Outcomes of community-based prenatal education programs for pregnant women in rural Texas. Fam Community Health. 2018 Jul/Sep;41(3):E1-E4. doi: 10.1097/FCH.0000000000000191.
A prenatal, evidenced-based education program was implemented in 7 rural counties and provided by trained staff at the Texas Department of State Health Services. This was implemented to address health disparities, in regard to birth outcomes, in rural minorities of Southeast Texas. The participants were given a preassessment (N = 382) and a postassessment (N = 326) of relevant health knowledge and a follow-up assessment (N = 149) to document the outcomes of their birth as well as health practices they were employing as new parents. The assessment results were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the programs on improving health outcomes and knowledge.

Lin S, Lin Z, Ou Y, Soim A, Shrestha S, Langlois P, et al. Maternal ambient heat exposure during early pregnancy in summer and spring and congenital heart defects - A large US population-based, case-control study. Environ Int. 2018 Jun 7;118:211-221. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.04.043. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Few studies have assessed the effect of ambient heat during the fetal development period on congenital heart defects (CHDs), especially in transitional seasons. We examined and compared the associations between extreme heat and CHD phenotypes in summer and spring, assessed their geographical differences, and compared different heat indicators.
METHODS: We identified 5848 CHD cases and 5742 controls (without major structural defects) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a US multicenter, population-based case-control study. Extreme heat events (EHEs) were defined by using the 95th (EHE95) or 90th (EHE90) percentile of daily maximum temperature and its frequency and duration during postconceptional weeks 3-8. We used a two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model to examine both regional and study-wide associations. Exposure odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses, while controlling for potential confounding factors.
RESULTS: Overall, we observed no significant relationships between maternal EHE exposure and CHDs in most regions during summer. However, we found that 3-11 days of EHE90 during summer and spring was significantly associated with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) study-wide (ORs ranged: 2.17-3.24). EHE95 in spring was significantly associated with conotruncal defects and VSDs in the South (ORs: 1.23-1.78). Most EHE indicators in spring were significantly associated with increased septal defects (both VSDs and atrial septal defects (ASDs)) in the Northeast.
CONCLUSION: While generally null results were found, long duration of unseasonable heat was associated with the increased risks for VSDs and ASDs, mainly in South and Northeast of the US. Further research to confirm our findings is needed.

Uejio C, Morano L, Jung J, Kintziger K, Jagger M, Chalmers J, et al. Occupational heat exposure among municipal workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2018 Jun 5. doi: 10.1007/s00420-018-1318-3. [Epub ahead of print]
PURPOSE: Outdoor workers face elevated and prolonged heat exposures and have limited access to air-conditioned spaces. This study's overarching research aim is to increase knowledge of municipal worker heat exposure and adaptation practices. The study's sub-objectives are: (1) quantifying exposure misclassification from estimating personal heat exposure from the official weather station; (2) surveying worker's knowledge and practices to adapt to extreme heat; and (3) relating heat exposure and adaptation practices to self-reported thermal comfort.
METHODS: Participants wore a personal heat exposure sensor over 7 days from June 1st to July 3rd, 2015 in Tallahassee, Florida US. Next, participants confirmed the days that they wore the sensor and reported their daily thermal comfort and heat adaptations. Finally, participants completed an extreme heat knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey.
RESULTS: Some participants (37%) experienced hotter and more humid conditions (heat index > 2) than the weather station. The most common heat adaptations were staying hydrated (85%), wearing a hat (46%), and seeking shade (40%). During work hours, higher temperatures increased the odds (odds ratio: 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.41, p = 0.016) of a participant feeling too hot. Shifting work duty indoors made workers to feel more comfortable (odds ratio: 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.70, p = 0.005).
CONCLUSION: In hot and humid climates, everyday heat exposures continuously challenge the health of outdoor workers.

Lee D, Montour J, Fulton A, Benoit S, Nelson N, Liu Y. Overseas Hepatitis B Vaccinations Among Newly Arrived Cubans in Texas-2010-2015. J Immigr Minor Health. 2018 Jun;20(3):755-758. doi: 10.1007/s10903-017-0649-6.
We assessed hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic results among newly arrived Cubans with vaccination documentation. We matched the post-arrival health assessment HBV serologic results of Cubans who arrived during 2010-2015 in Texas with their overseas hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination records in the CDC's Electronic Disease Notification database and calculated the proportion of those immune due to HepB vaccinations. Among 2123 who had overseas HepB vaccination and serologic results, 1072 (50.5%) had three valid documented doses of HepB. Of these 1072, 441 (41.1%) were immune due to HepB vaccination, 24 (2.2%), immune due to natural infection, 599 (55.9%), susceptible to HBV, and 8 (0.7%), HBV infected. Stratified by age, 21 (87.5%) of 24 children <5 years of age showed protection, and the antibody to HepB surface antigen (anti-HBs) decreased as age increased. Our findings concurred with previous observations that anti-HBs serologic results wane over time. Many newly arrived Cubans with complete HepB vaccination records on the U.S. Department of State overseas vaccination forms might be immune despite <10 mIU/mL anti-HBs response levels.

Borner K, Mitchell T, Gray J, Davis A, Pont S, Sweeney B, et al. Factor structure of a Spanish translation of an obesity-specific parent-report measure of health-related quality of life. J Pediatr Psychol. 2018 May 15. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsy030. [Epub ahead of print]
OBJECTIVE: Latino youth are disproportionately affected by pediatric obesity and consequently experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Although many caregivers of Latino youth do not speak English fluently, no validated Spanish translations of obesity-specific HRQOL measures exist for this population. Therefore, non-English-speaking Latino parents have typically been excluded from analyses related to HRQOL. This study assesses the factor structure of a Spanish translation of a parent-report measure of obesity-specific HRQOL, Sizing Them Up, in a treatment-seeking sample of children with obesity.
METHODS: Structural equation modeling was used to assess the factor structure of the 6-subscale, 22-item Sizing Them Up measure in 154 parents of treatment-seeking Latino youth (5-18 years of age). Analyses exploring internal consistency and convergent validity were also conducted.
RESULTS: Acceptable measurement fit was achieved for the six-factor solution. However, the higher-order model assessing Total HRQOL did not reach acceptable levels, as results found that the Positive Social Attributes (PSA) subscale was not representative of Total HRQOL; internal consistency and convergent validity results also supported this finding.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides support for the utility of a modified version of Sizing Them Up, excluding the PSA Scale, as a parent-report measure of obesity-specific HRQOL in treatment-seeking Latino youth with obesity.

Chen R, Mukhopadhyay S, Merits A, Bolling B, Nasar F, Coffey L, et al. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Togaviridae. J Gen Virol. 2018 May 10. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001072. [Epub ahead of print]
The Togaviridae is a family of small, enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 10-12 kb. Within the family, the genus Alphavirus includes a large number of diverse species, while the genus Rubivirus includes the single species Rubella virus. Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and are pathogenic in their vertebrate hosts. Many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. chikungunya virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus). Rubella virus is transmitted by respiratory routes among humans. 

Baeva S, Saxton D, Ruggiero K, Kormondy M, Hollier L, Hellerstedt J, et al. Identifying maternal deaths in Texas using an enhanced method, 2012. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 May;131(5):762-769. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002565.
OBJECTIVE: To more accurately estimate the 2012 maternal mortality ratio for Texas using an enhanced method for identifying maternal deaths.
METHODS: This population-based descriptive study used both data matching and record review to verify pregnancy or delivery within 42 days for 147 deaths with obstetric cause-of-death codes, and used data matching alone to identify additional maternal deaths within the same timeframe. Crude maternal mortality ratios were calculated for confirmed maternal deaths overall, by race and ethnicity, and by age. These maternal mortality ratios were compared with maternal mortality ratios computed using obstetric cause-of-death codes alone (standard method).
RESULTS: Fifty-six maternal deaths were confirmed to have occurred during pregnancy or within 42 days postpartum. Using our enhanced method, the 2012 maternal mortality ratio for Texas was 14.6 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, less than half that obtained using the standard method (n=147). Approximately half (50.3%) of obstetric-coded deaths showed no evidence of pregnancy within 42 days, and a large majority of these incorrectly indicated pregnancy at the time of death. Insufficient information was available to determine pregnancy for 15 obstetric-coded deaths, which were excluded from the 2012 maternal mortality ratio estimate; however, had these deaths been included, the resulting maternal mortality ratio would still be significantly lower than that reported using the standard method.
CONCLUSION: Relying solely on obstetric codes for identifying maternal deaths appears to be insufficient and can lead to inaccurate maternal mortality ratios. A method enhanced with data matching and record review yields more accurate ratios. Results likely have national implications, because miscoding of obstetric deaths with the standard method may affect the accuracy of other states' maternal mortality ratios.

Bosh K, Coyle J, Hansen V, Kim E, Speers S, Rowlinson E, et al. HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection analysis using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Apr 11:1-11. doi: 10.1017/S0950268818000766. [Epub ahead of print]
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.

Forrester M. Megalopyge opercularis caterpillar stings reported to Texas poison centers. Wilderness Environ Med. 2018 Apr 3. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2018.02.002. [Epub ahead of print] 
INTRODUCTION: The Megalopyge opercularis caterpillar is covered with spines that break off and release venom on contact, resulting in severe pain, erythema, rash, and other adverse effects. In Texas, these caterpillars are abundant and of potential health threat. This study describes M opercularis caterpillar stings reported to Texas poison centers.
METHODS: Cases were M opercularis caterpillar stings reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2016. The distribution of stings was determined related to exposure circumstances and management.
RESULTS: There were 3484 M opercularis caterpillar stings reported during 2000-2016. The annual number of stings did not consistently change over the 17-year time period. The monthly number of stings was highest in July (12%) and October to November (59%). The patients were female in 53% of cases and aged 20 years or more in 56%. The sting occurred at the patient's own residence in 91% of cases. The patients were managed outside of a healthcare facility in 89% of cases; 93% of the patients were known or expected to have no or at most minor clinical effects. Dermal clinical effects were reported in 90% of cases, the most common being irritation/pain (84%), puncture/wound (45%), erythema/flushed (29%), and edema (15%).
CONCLUSIONS: M opercularis caterpillar stings reported to Texas poison centers were more frequently reported in July and October to November. Most of the patients were adults. The majority of patients were managed outside of healthcare facilities and did not have serious outcomes. Most of the adverse clinical effects were dermal in nature.

Hoyt A, Canfield M, Romitti P, Botto L, Anderka M, Krikov S, et al. Does maternal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke during pregnancy increase the risk for preterm or small-for-gestational age birth? Matern Child Health J. 2018 Mar 24. doi: 10.1007/s10995-018-2522-1. [Epub ahead of print]
Introduction While associations between active smoking and various adverse birth outcomes (ABOs) have been reported in the literature, less is known about the impact of secondhand smoke (SHS) on many pregnancy outcomes. Methods We examined the relationship between maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy and preterm (< 37 weeks gestation) and small-for-gestational age (SGA; assessed using sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves) singleton births using non-smoking controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011). Multivariable logistic regression models for household, workplace/school, and combined SHS exposure-controlled for maternal education, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and high blood pressure-were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Interaction was assessed for maternal folic acid supplementation, alcohol use, age at delivery, and infant sex. Results Infants of 8855 mothers were examined in the preterm birth analysis with 666 (7.5%) categorized as preterm, 574 moderately preterm (32-36 weeks), and 92 very preterm (< 32 weeks). For the SGA analysis, infants of 8684 mothers were examined with 670 (7.7%) categorized as SGA. The aORs for mothers reporting both household and workplace/school SHS were elevated for preterm (aOR 1.99; 95% CI 1.13-3.50) and moderately preterm birth (32-36 weeks) (aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.22-3.88). No results for the SGA analysis achieved significance, nor was evidence of interaction evident. Conclusion The findings suggest an association between SHS from multiple exposure sources and preterm birth, but no evidence for association with SGA births. Continued study of SHS and ABOs is needed to best inform public health prevention programs.

Rowlinson E, Goings S, Minnerly S, Surita K, Pogosjans S. Differences in partner services outcomes for men who have sex with men diagnosed with primary and secondary syphilis by HIV serostatus. Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Mar;45(3):152-157. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000710
Background: Differences in partner services outcomes in men who have sex with men (MSM) by HIV serostatus have not been explored as a potential driver of differential early syphilis (ES) burden in this population. Methods: We compared partner services outcomes (number of partners named, notified, tested, diagnosed, and treated) between HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM initiated for ES partner services in Texas from 2013 to 2016 using logistic regression and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between HIV serostatus and having a no-partner-initiated (NPI) partner services interview controlling for demographic characteristics, prior partner services interactions, and geosocial phone application use. Results: A total of 4161 HIV-positive MSM and 5254 HIV-negative MSM were initiated for ES partner services. HIV-positive MSM named fewer partners than did HIV-negative MSM (mean, 1.2 vs. 1.9; P < 0.001) and had lower indices of partners notified, tested, diagnosed, and treated. HIV seropositivity was significantly associated with NPI. However, this association was not significant when limited to MSM with previous partner services interviews (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.06; P = 0.38); in this subset of MSM, using geosocial phone application was negatively associated with having an NPI interview (aRR, 0.90), and having 1 (aRR, 1.33) or more than 1 previous NPI interview (aRR, 1.57) was associated with an NPI interview during the study period. Conclusions: Suboptimal outcomes for syphilis partner service may result in missed opportunities for testing and treatment of sexual contacts, which could allow for propagation of syphilis. Implementation of innovative protocols is needed to ensure that partner services continue to be an effective and acceptable method of syphilis disease intervention in MSM.

Carey FR, Wilkinson AV, Ranjit N, Mandell D, Hoelscher DM. Perceived Weight and bullying victimization in boys and girls. J Sch Health. 2018 Mar;88(3):217-226. doi: 10.1111/josh.12600.
Background: Research suggests that perceived weight poses separate risks from objective weight on adolescents' risks of being bullied. We examined if the prevalence of bullying victimization differed by perceived and objective weight status, and how these associations varied by sex. Methods: Data were analyzed for 6716 8th and 11th graders from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition project, a Texas statewide survey of public school students. Participants reported demographics, bullying victimization, and weight perceptions. Height and weight were measured. Results: In the last 6 months, 10.8% of students reported being bullied. Nearly 70% of normal weight and overweight and 50% of obese adolescents perceived themselves as weighing the right amount. Perceiving oneself as weighing too little or too much was significantly associated with increased bullying victimization (p < .05 for both), whereas objective weight was not. Statistical interactions between perceived weight and sex were significantly associated with victimization (p < .05) among boys only; boys who perceived themselves as weighing too little had higher predicted probabilities of victimization. Conclusions: Perceived weight may play a greater role in bullying victimization than objective weight, especially among boys. Interventions to prevent bullying should consider adolescents' self-perceptions of weight to effectively identify those at greater risk for victimization.

Mba-Jonas A, Culpepper W, Hill T, Cantu V, Loera J, Borders J, et al.  A multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Agona infections associated with consumption of fresh, whole papayas imported from Mexico-United States, 2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 19. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix1094.
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella causes ~1 million food-borne infections annually in the United States. We began investigating a multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Agona infections in April 2011. Methods: A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Agona occurring between 1 January and 25 August 2011. We developed hypotheses through iterative interviews. Product distribution analyses and traceback investigations were conducted. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tested papayas from Mexico for Salmonella. Results: We identified 106 case patients from 25 states. Their median age was 21 years (range, 1-91). Thirty-nine of 61 case patients (64%) reported Hispanic/Latino ethnicity; 11 of 65 (17%) travelled to Mexico before illness. Thirty-two of 56 case patients (57%) reported papaya consumption. Distribution analyses revealed that three firms, including Distributor A, distributed papaya to geographic areas that aligned with both the location and timing of illnesses. Traceback of papayas purchased by ill persons in four states identified Distributor A as the common supplier. FDA testing isolated the outbreak strain from a papaya sample collected at distributor A and from another sample collected at the US-Mexico border, destined for distributor A. FDA isolated Salmonella species from 62 of 388 papaya import samples (16%). The investigation led to a recall of fresh, whole papayas from Distributor A and an FDA import alert for all papayas from Mexico. Conclusions: This is the first reported Salmonella outbreak in the United States linked to fresh, whole papayas. The outbreak highlights important issues regarding the safety of imported produce.

Hughes MR, Negovetich NJ, Mayes BC, Dowler RC. Prevalence and intensity of the sinus roundworm (Skrjabingylus chitwoodorum) in rabies-negative skunks of Texas, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2018 Jan;54(1):85-94. doi: 10.7589/2017-02-023. 
Estimates of the distribution and prevalence of the sinus roundworm (Skrjabingylus chitwoodorum) have been based largely on the inspection of skunk (Mephitidae) skulls showing damage from infections. We examined 595 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and nine hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus) that had tested negative for rabies by the Texas Department of State Health Services (US) between November 2010 and April 2015 to determine species of Skrjabingylus, prevalence and intensity of infection, and distribution of infection in Texas by county. We expected ecoregions with more precipitation to have higher rates of infection than more-arid ecoregions. Prevalence of S. chitwoodorum in striped skunks was 48.7%, with a mean intensity of 19.4 (SD=24.44, range=1-181) nematodes. There was a bias for the left sinus. The prevalence of infection varied among ecoregions of Texas, but it was not correlated with precipitation. Infection intensity did not vary among ecoregions. The prevalence of sinus roundworms in rabies-negative skunks suggested that behavioral changes because of skrjabingylosis might have been responsible for the submission by the public of some skunks for rabies testing.

Delaney A, Mai C, Smoots A, Cragan J, Ellington S, Langlois P, et al. Population-based surveillance of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection - 15 states and U.S. territories, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jan 26;67(3):91-96. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6703a2
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1). Population-based birth defects surveillance systems are critical to monitor all infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of known exposure or laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. CDC analyzed data from 15 U.S. jurisdictions conducting population-based surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection. Jurisdictions were stratified into the following three groups: those with 1) documented local transmission of Zika virus during 2016; 2) one or more cases of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents; and 3) less than one case of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents. A total of 2,962 infants and fetuses (3.0 per 1,000 live births; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-3.2) (2) met the case definition. In areas with local transmission there was a non-statistically significant increase in total birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection from 2.8 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 3.0 cases in the second half (p = 0.10). However, when neural tube defects and other early brain malformations (NTDs)§ were excluded, the prevalence of birth defects strongly linked to congenital Zika virus infection increased significantly, from 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 2.4 cases in the second half, an increase of 29 more cases than expected (p = 0.009). These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.

Loza O, Alvarez CR, Peralta-Torres D. Healthcare and social services providers who serve sexual and gender minorities in a U.S.-Mexico border city. J Immigr Minor Health. 2018 Jan 15. doi: 10.1007/s10903-018-0688-7.
Sexual and gender minorities, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, experience barriers to healthcare as a result of stigma, discrimination, and poor cultural competence by healthcare and social services providers (HCSSP). The purpose of the study is to increase access to care and services for the LGBTQ community in a U.S.-Mexico border city by identifying LGBTQ-friendly HCSSP. A survey, developed based on concerns voiced in a predominantly Hispanic LGBTQ community, was administered to HCSSP and used to create a referral list, "The Purple Pages of El Paso" (PPoEP). Overall, 77 HCSSP have responded and 43 are included in the most recent version of the PPoEP. This model for developing a referral list of providers can be adapted in areas where LGBTQ communities face similar barriers to care and services. To be effective in reducing barriers to care, PPoEP must be updatable and sustainable.

Forrester MB. Pediatric exposures to Bombina toads reported to poison centers. Pediatr Emerg Care 2018;34:25-26.
OBJECTIVES: Fire-bellied toads (genus Bombina) secrete toxins from their skin that may cause problems to humans, particularly if they get in the eye. This study aimed to describe pediatric exposures to fire-bellied toads reported to a large poison center system. METHODS: Cases were fire-bellied toad exposures among patients aged 13 years or younger reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2014. The distribution by various demographic and clinical factors was determined. RESULTS: Of 20 total exposures, the mean patient age was 5.8 years (range, 2-13 years); 70% of the patients were boys. The exposure route was ocular (70%), dermal (55%), and ingestion (20%). Eighty-five percent of the exposures occurred at the patient's own residence. Sixty percent of the patients were managed onsite, and 40% were already at or en route to a health care facility. The medical outcome was as follows: minor effects (45%), moderate effects (5%), and not followed but judged to have minimal clinical effects (50%). The most common reported symptoms were ocular irritation/pain (65%), dermal irritation/pain (30%), and red eye (20%). Decontamination by dilution/irrigation/wash was reported in 95% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Few pediatric exposures to fire-bellied toads were reported. Those that were reported were most likely to involve ocular followed by dermal routes. The exposures tended not to be serious and could be managed outside of a health care facility.

Raut J, Simeone R, Tinker S, Canfield M, Day R, Agopian A. Proportion of orofacial clefts attributable to recognized risk factors. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2018 Jan 1. doi: 10.1177/1055665618774019. [Epub ahead of print]
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for a set of recognized risk factors for orofacial clefts.
DESIGN: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. For recognized risk factors for which data were available, we estimated crude population attributable fractions (cPAFs) to account for potential confounding, average-adjusted population attributable fractions (aaPAFs). We assessed 11 modifiable and 3 nonmodifiable parental/maternal risk factors. The aaPAF for individual risk factors and the total aaPAF for the set of risk factors were calculated using a method described by Eide and Geffler.
SETTING: Population-based case-control study in 10 US states.
PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand seven hundred seventy-nine cases with isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P), 1310 cases with isolated cleft palate (CP), and 11 692 controls with estimated dates of delivery between October 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude population attributable fraction and aaPAF.
RESULTS: The proportion of CL±P and CP cases attributable to the full set of examined risk factors was 50% and 43%, respectively. The modifiable factor with the largest aaPAF was smoking during the month before pregnancy or the first month of pregnancy (4.0% for CL±P and 3.4% for CP). Among nonmodifiable factors, the factor with the largest aaPAF for CL±P was male sex (27%) and for CP it was female sex (16%).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results may inform research and prevention efforts. A large proportion of orofacial cleft risk is attributable to nonmodifiable factors; it is important to better understand the mechanisms involved for these factors.

Glowicz J, Crist M, Gould C, Moulton-Meissner H, Noble-Wang J, de Man TJB, Perry KA, Miller Z, Yang WC, Langille S, Ross J, Garcia B, et al. A multistate investigation of health care-associated Burkholderia cepacia complex infections related to liquid docusate sodium contamination, January-October 2016. Am J Infect Control. 2018 Jan 9. pii: S0196-6553(17)31287-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2017.11.018. [Epub ahead of print]
Background: Outbreaks of health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have been associated with medical devices and water-based products. Water is the most common raw ingredient in nonsterile liquid drugs, and the significance of organisms recovered from microbiologic testing during manufacturing is assessed using a risk-based approach. This incident demonstrates that lapses in manufacturing practices and quality control of nonsterile liquid drugs can have serious unintended consequences. Methods: An epidemiologic and laboratory investigation of clusters of Bcc HAIs that occurred among critically ill, hospitalized, adult and pediatric patients was performed between January 1, 2016, and October 31, 2016. Results: One hundred and eight case patients with Bcc infections at a variety of body sites were identified in 12 states. Two distinct strains of Bcc were obtained from patient clinical cultures. These strains were found to be indistinguishable or closely related to 2 strains of Bcc obtained from cultures of water used in the production of liquid docusate, and product that had been released to the market by manufacturer X. Conclusions: This investigation highlights the ability of bacteria present in nonsterile, liquid drugs to cause infections or colonization among susceptible patients. Prompt reporting and thorough investigation of potentially related infections may assist public health officials in identifying and removing contaminated products from the market when lapses in manufacturing occur.

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Last updated May 16, 2022