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Medical and Research Library News - March 2015


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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles
New Books
Free E-Books

March 2015

News and training opportunities

Chikungunya in the United States
April 8, 2015, 3:00-4:00 PM EDT. This presentation will review basic Chikungunya virus distribution, transmission cycles, clinical disease and medical issues, diagnostics, epidemiology, surveillance, and response. https://events-na10.adobeconnect.com/content/connect/c1/1053915029/en/events/event/shared/1070490169/event_landing.html?sco-id=1150298796&campaign-id=NACCHO%20Connect

Could a diet help shield you from Alzheimer's?
Scientists say the MIND eating plan significantly reduces risk of the brain disorder. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151718.html

Data for health: learning what works
On Thursday, April 2, 2015, RWJF will host an event to announce the release of their report from their Data for Health initiative. The event will be live, in Washington DC and available via webcast. http://www.rwjf.org/en/about-rwjf/newsroom/newsroom-content/2015/02/data-for-health-learning-what-works.html

Environmental Public Health Tracking virtual conference
May 13-14, 2015. This virtual conference will serve as a platform to raise awareness and inform state health department chronic disease directors and appropriate staff of the value and usage of National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. http://chronicdisease.site-ym.com/members/group_content_view.asp?group=147790&id=472029

Food additives alter gut microbes, cause diseases in mice
The findings suggest that certain food additives might play a role in the increasing incidence of obesity and chronic inflammatory bowel disease. http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/march2015/03162015additives.htm

How vitamin D may affect heart disease, diabetes
The mechanisms uncovered may lead to novel therapies. The findings also suggest that vitamin D might help prevent the complications of diabetes and inflammation. http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/march2015/03302015vitamin.htm

Major publisher retracts 43 scientific papers amid wider fake peer-review scandal
A major publisher of scholarly medical and science articles has retracted 43 papers because of “fabricated” peer reviews amid signs of a broader fake peer review racket affecting many more publications. http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/03/27/fabricated-peer-reviews-prompt-scientific-journal-to-retract-43-papers-systematic-scheme-may-affect-other-journals/?tid=pm_national_pop

Precision Medicine Initiative
President Obama has now unveiled the Precision Medicine Initiative — a bold new enterprise to revolutionize medicine and generate the scientific evidence needed to move the concept of precision medicine into every day clinical practice. http://www.nih.gov/precisionmedicine/

Progress reported in battling advanced ovarian cancer
Experimental vaccine and cancer drug each slow disease progression, researchers find. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151733.html

This is why you shouldn’t believe that exciting new medical study
Researchers writing in the American Journal of Medicine looked at 101 studies published in top scientific journals between 1979 and 1983 that claimed a new therapy or medical technology was very promising. Only five made it to market within a decade. http://www.vox.com/2015/3/23/8264355/research-study-hype

White House releases plan to combat and prevent antibiotic-resistant bacteria
The Obama Administration has released the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (NAP). The NAP outlines a whole-of-government approach over the next five years targeted at addressing the threat of drug resistance in bacteria. https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2015/03/27/our-plan-combat-and-prevent-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria

Cool websites and reports on hot topics*

AJPH study: installing breathalyzers in cars could lower drunk driving injuries and deaths
According to the study, alcohol ignition interlock devices could be key to preventing 85 percent of alcohol-related crash fatalities over a period of 15 years. http://www.publichealthnewswire.org/?p=12434

DNA blood test gives women a new option for prenatal screening
This kind of test , called cell free fetal DNA testing, uses a simple blood sample from an expectant mother to analyze bits of fetal DNA that have leaked into her bloodstream. http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2015/01/26/368449371/dna-blood-test-gives-women-a-new-option-for-prenatal-screening

FDA OKs new drug for diabetes-linked eye condition
Eylea injections appear to ease diabetic retinopathy, studies show. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151656.html

HHS launches innovative digital storytelling project to support federal HIV response
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has released Positive Spin, a comprehensive digital educational tool that uses personal storytelling to promote the importance of getting people with HIV into treatment. http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2015pres/03/20150325a.html

Health Impact Assessment tools and resources
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a practical tool that uses data, research, and stakeholder input to determine a policy or project's impact on the health of a population. This site provides HIA guides, tools, training materials, and other resources. http://www.humanimpact.org/new-to-hia/tools-a-resources/

Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI) progress report
Progress Being Made on Hospital Infections, But More Work Needed: CDC Report Tracks Improvements in Care. http://thenationshealth.aphapublications.org/content/45/2/1.3.full

HIV can spread early, evolve in patients’ brains
Findings add urgency to screening, treatment. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/mar2015/nimh-26a.htm

NLM releases TOXinvaders, a mobile game about chemistry, the environment and health
The Division of Specialized Information Services of the National Library of Medicine has launched TOXinvaders, an environmental health and toxicology game for iPhone and iPad. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/news/toxinvaders_mobile_game.html

Public does not understand danger of opioid addiction
The conclusion from a new report from the National Safety Council is sweeping: Americans have a severe knowledge gap when it comes to prescription painkillers. http://www.astho.org/StatePublicHealth/Public-Does-Not-Understand-Danger-of-Opioid-Addiction/3-12-15/?blogid=4396

UN chief urges governments intensify efforts to end tuberculosis by 2035
With some 37 million lives saved between 2000 and 2013 through the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, it is possible to end the epidemic by 2035. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=50411#.VRqtM0-Ya71

Interesting journal articles

Association of aspirin and NSAID use with risk of colorectal cancer according to genetic variants. Nan H, Hutter CM, Lin Y, et al. JAMA. 2015;313(11):1133-42. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.1815.
IMPORTANCE: Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic markers that may confer differential benefit from aspirin or NSAID chemoprevention, we tested gene × environment interactions between regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control study using data from 5 case-control and 5 cohort studies initiated between 1976 and 2003 across the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany and including colorectal cancer cases (n=8634) and matched controls (n=8553) ascertained between 1976 and 2011. Participants were all of European descent.
EXPOSURES: Genome-wide SNP data and information on regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and other risk factors. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.64-0.74]; P = 6.2 × 10(-28)) compared with nonregular use. In the conventional logistic regression analysis, the SNP rs2965667 at chromosome 12p12.3 near the MGST1 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with aspirin and/or NSAID use (P = 4.6 × 10(-9) for interaction). Aspirin and/or NSAID use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs2965667-TT genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.61-0.70]; P = 7.7 × 10(-33)) but with a higher risk among those with rare (4%) TA or AA genotypes (prevalence, 35% vs 29%; OR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.27-2.81]; P = .002). In case-only interaction analysis, the SNP rs16973225 at chromosome 15q25.2 near the IL16 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs (P = 8.2 × 10(-9) for interaction). Regular use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs16973225-AA genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.62-0.71]; P = 1.9 × 10(-30)) but was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer among those with less common (9%) AC or CC genotypes (prevalence, 36% vs 39%; OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.78-1.20]; P = .76). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this genome-wide investigation of gene × environment interactions, use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer, and this association differed according to genetic variation at 2 SNPs at chromosomes 12 and 15. Validation of these findings in additional populations may facilitate targeted colorectal cancer prevention strategies.

Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil. Victora CG, Horta BL, Loret de Mola C, et al. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3(4):e199-205. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(15)70002-1.
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. METHODS: A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. FINDINGS: From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3•76 points, 95% CI 2•20-5•33), more years of education (0•91 years, 0•42-1•40), and higher monthly incomes (341•0 Brazilian reals, 93•8-588•3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. INTERPRETATION: Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, International Development Research Center (Canada), CNPq, FAPERGS, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial [published online ahead of print March 15, 2015]. Huo Y, Li J, Qin X, et al. JAMA. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.2274.
Importance: Uncertainty remains about the efficacy of folic acid therapy for the primary prevention of stroke because of limited and inconsistent data. Objective: To test the primary hypothesis that therapy with enalapril and folic acid is more effective in reducing first stroke than enalapril alone among Chinese adults with hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants: The China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted from May 19, 2008, to August 24, 2013, in 32 communities in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in China. A total of 20 702 adults with hypertension without history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) participated in the study. Interventions: Eligible participants, stratified by MTHFR C677T genotypes (CC, CT, and TT), were randomly assigned to receive double-blind daily treatment with a single-pill combination containing enalapril, 10 mg, and folic acid, 0.8 mg (n = 10 348) or a tablet containing enalapril, 10 mg, alone (n = 10 354). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was first stroke. Secondary outcomes included first ischemic stroke; first hemorrhagic stroke; MI; a composite of cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke; and all-cause death. Results: During a median treatment duration of 4.5 years, compared with the enalapril alone group, the enalapril-folic acid group had a significant risk reduction in first stroke (2.7% of participants in the enalapril-folic acid group vs 3.4% in the enalapril alone group; hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93), first ischemic stroke (2.2% with enalapril-folic acid vs 2.8% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.91), and composite cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke (3.1% with enalapril-folic acid vs 3.9% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risks of hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.65-1.34), MI (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.82), and all-cause deaths (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10) did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups. There were no significant differences between the 2 treatment groups in the frequencies of adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with hypertension in China without a history of stroke or MI, the combined use of enalapril and folic acid, compared with enalapril alone, significantly reduced the risk of first stroke. These findings are consistent with benefits from folate use among adults with hypertension and low baseline folate levels.

Increasing sibling relative risk of survival to older and older ages and the importance of precise definitions of "aging," "life span," and "longevity" [published online ahead of print March 26, 2015]. Sebastiani P, Nussbaum L, Andersen SL, Black MJ, Perls TT. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.
The lack of a formal definition of human longevity continues to generate confusion about its genetic and nongenetic determinants. In order to characterize how differences in birth year cohorts and percentiles of survival are associated with familial contribution to variation in survival, we estimated sibling relative risk of living to increasingly rare percentiles of survival based on a dataset of 1,917 validated sibships each containing at least one individual living to age 90 years. About 1,042 of the sibships included at least one individual who survived to age 100 and 511 included at least one individual who survived to age 105 and older. We show that sibling relative risk increases with older ages, sex, and earlier birth year cohorts of the proband and siblings of male 90-year-olds (5th percentile of survival) have 1.73 (95% CI: 1.5; 2.0) times the chance of living to age 90, while siblings of both male and female probands who survived to age 105 years (~0.01 percentile of survival) have 35.6 (95%CI: 15.1; 67.7) times the chance of living to age 105 compared with population controls. These results emphasize the importance of consistently defining the longevity phenotype in terms of rarity of survival for appropriate comparisons across studies.

Loneliness as a public health issue: the impact of loneliness on health care utilization among older adults [published online ahead of print March 19, 2015]. Gerst-Emerson K, Jayawardhana J. Am J Public Health. 2015:e1-e7.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether loneliness is associated with higher health care utilization among older adults in the United States. METHODS: We used panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2008 and 2012) to examine the long-term impact of loneliness on health care use. The sample was limited to community-dwelling persons in the United States aged 60 years and older. We used negative binomial regression models to determine the impact of loneliness on physician visits and hospitalizations. RESULTS:
Under 2 definitions of loneliness, we found that a sizable proportion of those aged 60 years and older in the United States reported loneliness. Regression results showed that chronic loneliness (those lonely both in 2008 and 4 years later) was significantly and positively associated with physician visits (β = 0.075, SE = 0.034). Loneliness was not significantly associated with hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is a significant public health concern among elders. In addition to easing a potential source of suffering, the identification and targeting of interventions for lonely elders may significantly decrease physician visits and health care costs.

Loss of δ-catenin function in severe autism [published online ahead of print March 25, 2015]. Turner TN, Sharma K, Oh EC, et al. Nature.
Autism is a multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder affecting more males than females; consequently, under a multifactorial genetic hypothesis, females are affected only when they cross a higher biological threshold. We hypothesize that deleterious variants at conserved residues are enriched in severely affected patients arising from female-enriched multiplex families with severe disease, enhancing the detection of key autism genes in modest numbers of cases. Here we show the use of this strategy by identifying missense and dosage sequence variants in the gene encoding the adhesive junction-associated δ-catenin protein (CTNND2) in female-enriched multiplex families and demonstrating their loss-of-function effect by functional analyses in zebrafish embryos and cultured hippocampal neurons from wild-type and Ctnnd2 null mouse embryos. Finally, through gene expression and network analyses, we highlight a critical role for CTNND2 in neuronal development and an intimate connection to chromatin biology. Our data contribute to the understanding of the genetic architecture of autism and suggest that genetic analyses of phenotypic extremes, such as female-enriched multiplex families, are of innate value in multifactorial disorders.

Olfactory impairment and traumatic brain injury in blast-injured combat troops: a cohort study [published online ahead of print March 18, 2015]. Xydakis MS, Mulligan LP, Smith AB, Olsen CH, Lyon DM, Belluscio L. Neurology.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a structured and quantitative assessment of differential olfactory performance-recognized between a blast-injured traumatic brain injury (TBI) group and a demographically comparable blast-injured control group-can serve as a reliable antecedent marker for preclinical detection of intracranial neurotrauma. METHODS: We prospectively and consecutively enrolled 231 polytrauma inpatients, acutely injured from explosions during combat operations in either Afghanistan or Iraq and requiring immediate stateside evacuation and sequential admission to our tertiary care medical center over a 2½-year period. This study correlates olfactometric scores with both contemporaneous neuroimaging findings as well as the clinical diagnosis of TBI, tabulates population-specific incidence data, and investigates return of olfactory function. RESULTS: Olfactometric score predicted abnormal neuroimaging significantly better than chance alone (area under the curve = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.87). Normosmia was present in all troops with mild TBI (i.e., concussion) and all control subjects. Troops with radiographic evidence of frontal lobe injuries were 3 times more likely to have olfactory impairment than troops with injuries to other brain regions (relative risk 3.0, 95% CI 0.98-9.14). Normalization of scores occurred in all anosmic troops available for follow-up testing. CONCLUSION: Quantitative identification olfactometry has limited sensitivity but high specificity as a marker for detecting acute structural neuropathology from trauma. When considering whether to order advanced neuroimaging, a functional disturbance with central olfactory impairment should be regarded as an important tool to inform the decision process. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that central olfactory dysfunction identifies patients with TBI who have intracranial radiographic abnormalities with a sensitivity of 35% (95% CI 20.6%-51.7%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI 97.7%-100.0%).

Suicide in U.S workplaces, 2003-2010: a comparison with non-workplace suicides [published online ahead of print March 7, 2015]. Tiesman HM, Konda S, Hartley D, Menéndez CC, Ridenour M, Hendricks S. Am J Prev Med. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.12.011.
INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates have risen considerably in recent years. National workplace suicide trends have not been well documented. The aim of this study is to describe suicides occurring in U.S. workplaces and compare them to suicides occurring outside of the workplace between 2003 and 2010. METHODS: Suicide data originated from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injury database and the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Suicide rates were calculated using denominators from the 2013 Current Population Survey and 2000 U.S. population census. Suicide rates were compared among demographic groups with rate ratios and 95% CIs. Suicide rates were calculated and compared among occupations. Linear regression, adjusting for serial correlation, was used to analyze temporal trends. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 1,719 people died by suicide in the workplace. Workplace suicide rates generally decreased until 2007 and then sharply increased (p=0.035). This is in contrast with non-workplace suicides, which increased over the study period (p=0.025). Workplace suicide rates were highest for men (2.7 per 1,000,000); workers aged 65-74 years (2.4 per 1,000,000); those in protective service occupations (5.3 per 1,000,000); and those in farming, fishing, and forestry (5.1 per 1,000,000). CONCLUSIONS: The upward trend of suicides in the workplace underscores the need for additional research to understand occupation-specific risk factors and develop evidence-based programs that can be implemented in the workplace.

New Books

52 strategies for life, love, & work : transforming your life one week at a time. Anne Grady, 2014. (BF 637 C5 G733 2014)
In this book, topic range from dealing with difficult people to navigating and managing change, productivity, happiness, and more. These 52 strategies provide a week-by-week template for success that will keep you motivated to making positive changes in your own

The ASTD leadership handbook. 2010. (HD 57.7 A883 2010)
This book is a compilation of insights, ideas, and tools that will enable individuals, teams, and organizations to develop their leadership capabilities. Topic areas covered in the book are leadership competencies, leadership development, attributes of successful leaders,
contemporary leadership challenges, and broadening the leadership discussion.

Expanding the boundaries : health equity and public health practice. National Association of County & City Health Officials, 2014. (W 76 N188 2014)
This book explores the ways in which health equity practitioners might act on the underlying social inequalities that are the root of health inequities, rather than only their consequences. It aims to invite dialogue among local health departments and their community allies.

New eBooks

Free books from Amedeo:

Hepatology 2015 (6th Edition, 655 pages)
A medical textbook that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of research, diagnosis and treatment of hepatic conditions. http://www.FlyingPublisher.com/9005.php

The Word Brain (2nd Edition, 81 pages)
How long does it take to learn a new language? How many words do you need to learn? Are languages within the reach of everybody? Which teachers should we avoid? These are some of the questions you ask yourself when you or your children start to learn a new language. The Word Brain provides the answers. http://www.TheWordBrain.com

GigaFrench is a multimedia language course. Everything’s free: the Book, the website and the audios. http://www.GigaFrench.com

Italian with Elisa (Volume 1, 220 pages)
Italian with Elisa is a multimedia language course. Everything’s free: the Book (220 pages) , the website and the audios. http://www.4Elisa.com



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Last updated October 19, 2015